Grade 6 Science Fair Project – "Road Salt – Is it the Fastest Way to Melt Icy Roads?"

The purpose of this science fair project is to explore the effect of road salt placed on snowy and icy roads. The freezing point for water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature water freezes into ice. Road salt is placed on snowy and icy roads because the salt causes the ice and snow to melt. The chemistry behind this reaction is that salt lowers the melting point or freezing point of water. The salt acts as foreign particles in the water to help the melting process.

In this science fair project you will simulate sidewalks and roads in icy conditions. You will fill dishes with ice to represent the sidewalks and roads. You will place various materials across the ice cubes to see if and how the ice cubes melt. The various materials include: road salt, fertilizer, calcium chloride, cat litter, and sand.

Hypothesis:

Road salt and the various other materials will cause the ice to melt

faster than using nothing at all.

Variables:

Type of material spread on ice

Materials Needed:

  • Six dishes that have dimensions of 9 x 13 inches
  • Freezer available to use during the science fair project
  • Stopwatch
  • Water
  • 12 ounces of road salt
  • 12 ounces of fertilizer
  • 12 ounces of calcium chloride
  • 12 ounces of cat litter
  • 12 ounces of sand
  • Paper
  • Pencil
  • Camera

SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT SETUP INSTRUCTIONS:

Complete the following steps for this science fair project:

Setup Step #1:

Pour water into each of the six dishes. Make sure that the water level in each dish is 1 inch.

Setup Step #2:

Place the six dishes in the freezer. Leave the dishes in the freezer until the water has frozen to ice. You may have to leave the dishes in the freezer overnight.

Setup Step #3:

Place each of the six dishes on the floor of your kitchen.

You are now ready to begin the science experiment.

SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT INSTRUCTIONS:

Step #1:

You are going to spread material onto each dish in the following

manner:

Dish #1: Do not spread any material across this dish. Leave this

dish as plain ice only.

Dish #2: Spread the 12 ounces of road salt evenly across this dish.

Dish #3: Spread the 12 ounces of fertilizer evenly across this dish.

Dish #4: Spread the 12 ounces of calcium chloride evenly across

this dish.

Dish #5: Spread the 12 ounces of cat litter evenly across this dish.

Dish #6: Spread the 12 ounces of sand evenly across this dish.

Step #2:

Use your stopwatch to determine how long it takes for each

material to melt the ice. Record your observations. Did the road salt melt the ice the quickest? Rank the materials in order from the dish that melted the fastest to the slowest. Do you think that road salt is most effective material to use on icy roads? Why or why not?

Step #3:

You may want to take pictures during the melting process.

Pictures will help you document your observations as well as validate your results and conclusions.

Summary of Results:

The materials that were spread across each dish cause the freezing point to lower. This in effect caused the ice to melt. Road salt is

used on icy roads because it is the most effective and also the safest for the environment.

What Should Be on the Tombstone of Gifted Education? Part 5: Writing the Tombstone

In Part 4, the focus was on extracurricular activities and their lack of use in gifted education today. While all students would benefit from the extension of knowledge into social issues, gifted students are those that are most likely to attain positions of influence and their ability to solve social issues should be at the heart of their educational plans. These experiences could take several forms from shadowing doctors or engineers, conducting research in any number of areas, reporting that research to the professional community, or aiding in the design of urban planning or alternative methods of planning. Any experience that forces gifted children to incorporate learned knowledge and integrate this knowledge into their moral structure solves the issue of whether or not the knowledge learned is truly understood and can be utilized effectively.

As the facts in Part’s 1-4 are examined, it is not hard to figure out why gifted education programs are not being funded or being closed completely. The education of gifted students actually requires more time and resources than the traditional student. If those resources and money were spent on the traditional school, many more students could have their test scores raised and their political clout (test scores) would remain intact. Not only are resources an issue in teaching the gifted, the administrator’s attitudes toward them also is changed by these very same test scores. It is assumed that the gifted will do well on their own so they are left to their own devices to prepare for state tests.

Identification of the gifted student also raises issues in housing these students, how districts will pay for their education, and what types of special curriculum will be used to train these students. Since most districts house gifted students in a single facility rather than providing each school an individual program, many students go unidentified as gifted. This limits the resources that are spent trying to educate these students. Identification of the gifted also raises issues involving just how far a district curriculum or teaching resources will go to be sure the student is educated. Extended experiences are required to be sure that knowledge is processed and incorporated into the student’s foundation of understanding.

So, what should go on the tombstone of gifted education? Gifted education is not dead yet but with the overreliance on state testing the allocation of resources into its preparation, gifted education has one foot in the grave and a headstone should be carved in anticipation of the end. In preparation, I suggest the headstone read as such:

Here Lies Gifted Education

Shot in the Back by State Testing

Mourned by Everyone, Missed by None

A New Definition of Science – The Textual Foundation That Represents the Real World

The Wikipedia defines science as follows. Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Definitions from various sources has to do with knowledge, investigation, study, observation, experimentation, laws, structure, behavior, explanation and systematicity.

They describe science and scientific activities, instead of pointing out what the enterprise is. What science looks like? They also don’t point out what enables science, why and how humans obtain the capability to advance in science. They describe the appearances and many facets of science but don’t make known the nature of science. We are going to find out.

After writing some articles on relations between written language and science, it is time for us to provide a new, text-based definition of science, which is important as a basis for carrying out future discussions of related issues. We have already proposed in previous papers that written language is the foundation of science.

The idea to exclude non-texts

We consider written language as the core of science, while non-texts are the goals, materials and occurrences.

Certainly, scientific activities include both texts and non-texts. Both are indispensable, with non-texts seem to be the real things. Without non-texts, the world wouldn’t exist, not to mention science. However, judging by the properties, we now decided to exclude non-texts from science. Otherwise, science would include virtually all information we can experience. That might lead to uncertainty, vagueness, misunderstanding, chaos and confusion.

Furthermore, we learn science mainly from books and papers. The achievement of scientists is judged by their publications. Some great discoveries are incidental. But they must be fitted into the existing textual framework to become part of the science.

When science is defined based on texts, its nature and properties will be well presented. Science-related investigations will be provided a clear basis. In fact, this definition doesn’t contradict with the common definitions, since texts constitute the systematic enterprise which supports the functions science fulfills.

The non-scientific texts

Texts are omnipresent in our lives, recording everything. But only a portion of them is considered scientific texts. The scientific or non-scientific texts are not different in that they are symbolic and sequential. Although they possess the capability of being science, they do not necessarily fulfil the function.

Descriptive texts

Texts of literature, narrative, fictions, art, instruction, music, advertisement, daily conversation, chatting message, etc. are descriptive and conveying. The sake of them is to describe the non-textual reality, which are the goal, in the center and being emphasized. This kind of texts are important in documenting, communicating the events, understanding of which are not reliant on the texts. The texts are peripheral to the non-texts and not attempting to build their own foundation. On the contrary, scientific texts are needed to understand the phenomena because of the properties of texts and the difficulties in observing the phenomena.

Mentalistic texts

This kind of texts are foundational but don’t represent facts. Collectively, we call them mentalistic texts. They include texts of religion, ethical belief, moral concept, philosophy, and pseudoscience. They tend to center on texts, but are not based on facts, based on vague facts or only reflect biased facts. Representing reality is not their goal. Nor are they intended to be verified. Subjectivity is an element common to this kind of texts. It is some kind of description or insistence on one’s own thought, opinion and argument, refraining from changes, rejecting challenges or denying their failure to account for the facts.

Although these texts don’t aim to represent reality, most of them are derived from facts or imaginations. They serve as an emotional need, spontaneous mental behavior and alternatives to science in some cases. Although not being scientific, they are still able to establish.

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There is no absolute distinction between descriptive, mentalistic and scientific texts. Some portions in descriptive texts or mentalistic texts might be scientific. The same facts could be studied in different kind of texts. For example, texts about history could be descriptive if they focus on the events; or scientific if they derive some regular patterns; or mentalistic if they adhere to creationism.

Indeed, scientific texts might have evolved from descriptive texts and mentalistic texts. That is why modern science was formerly called “natural philosophy”, which emerged from the integration of description of nature and the representational aspect of philosophy.

The text-based definition of science

Then comes the third kind of texts – science, defined as:

Science is the textual foundation that represents the real world.

Criteria of this definition

For the key properties of written language and science, refer to the paper “Language – The Core of Science”[1]. The basic ones are sequentiality and clarity. Now we added a third property – representation of reality. Being representational implies being processed, foundational, established and centered on.

The three properties are used for judgment on whether a text is scientific or how scientific it is. In the paper “Scientific Strength of Writing Systems – The Aspects”, we had explained the sequentility and clarity aspects. The “representation of reality” aspect is discussed in the following subsection.

Establishment of the representation of reality by means of visual processing

The key difference between representation and description is the center is texts for the former, while non-texts being the center of the latter. The accumulation of science is based on existing representational texts, while descriptive texts conform to the facts as they are. Since non-texts are centered on, the properties of texts given in The Paper are not fully exploited in descriptive texts, although which might choose proper or beautiful language in their composition.

The visual characteristic of texts makes it suitable for visual processing, which is needed to build a representation of reality. Through mental processing of the representational texts, we are able to extract consistency, commonalities and regularity, to clarify, refine and simplify information, to find contradictions, to discover new theory by reasoning, to approve or disapprove a new theory, to incorporate new theories into existing knowledge, to establish relations between existing knowledge, to organize and categorize knowledge as it expands. All these are achieved by intensive textual thinking.

The sequential growth of symbolic representation is constantly checked with facts, observations and experiments for validation. The explanation of the facts in textual means is accurate and deterministic, unlikely to change and are relied upon, while the represented non-texts are themselves not sequentially related, not clearly observed or even invisible. Due to the infinite expansion of observations and experiments, the textual representations also expand accordingly in an orderly manner.

Conclusion

Given the new definition of science, our discussions of science-related matters will be on a clear, focused and targeted course. It becomes clear that the science-centered world is in essence founded on scientific texts and the textual mind. Technology, engineering and many life-changing practices are integrated with and reliant on the textual representations.

In the science-text unity, we had put more emphasis on the written language. Now, as we are shifting towards science, there is a new horizon ahead.

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_academic_fields

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science

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[1] Referred to as “The Paper” hereafter.

Newton’s Castle- Filled with Captivating Converging 2-12 Content Connections

Just like the scientific genius of Newton which is accessible to a multiplicity of ages and learners, so too, the Newton’s Castle web resource provides a vast array of differentiated multidisciplinary curricula projects and investigative chambers within its pages.

EARLY CHILDHOOD

Language Arts

A child in grade 2 or 3 can experience an online think aloud and read aloud using the animation/picture walk technique of balanced literacy as the child considers how and why light is refracted through a prism.

Further language arts uses for the prism and why dogs chase cars problem construct, would be: having the children create their own pour quoi deliberately fictional folk tale to explain this science fact and then include an informational paragraph with the science fact data in it!!

They can also use the questions to author a scientifically accurate answer to the question in the style of the wonderful John Sciezka Science Verse (New York: Viking, 2004).

Science/ Mathematical Reasoning/Problem Solving

Since color identification and discussion is part of the early childhood science curriculum, children can use this animation as well as the animation of the car rolling up hill, as the catalyst for science log picturing observations. These questions also can serve as the bases for inculcating young learners in science method and hypothesis formation.

The same child can only ponder the scientific explanation The child can hypothesize as to why the dog chases a car. Therefore the child has practiced early childhood learning technology assisted inquiry based learning. The animation and web has accessed the young learner to this big Newtonian idea.

MIDDLE ELEMENTARY LEVEL INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL

LANGUAGE ARTS

On the middle elementary level, children can develop their own ideas and stories or factual explanations for why cars roll up hill. They can also storyboard animations using the visual as a catalyst for persuasive narrative or procedural account or research writing.

They can develop further science riddles and respond to them in riddle format.

They can also use these questions and the other Newton’s question page on the web resource as the starting point for procedural account and/or outlining of the steps they would take in the preliminary research process to discover the answers to these questions. They could even detail what happens when they put these questions into a search engine and then start checking out the matches. Of course, they can also click on the site links to explore the actual sources of the information.

They can also write to some of the other experts cited online, creating authentic communications and practicing much needed business/emailing skills.

Intermediate school students can add in their own links with explanations as to how these links enrich specific pages

SOCIAL STUDIES/ TEST SOPHISTICATION/ INTEGRATED BALANCED LITERACY

On middle grade levels, the web resource can provide information for biographical snapshots or student biography writings of Newton. They can also rewrite his story for middle school students since the web resource target audience is high school students.

Middle school students can map Newton’s life to go along with his timeline.

Intermediate Students can review a teen trade book about Newton to enhance the site!!

They can use the timeline, the animations, the graphics, and photos on the site for DBQ-document Question links.

SCIENCE

They can have fun themselves with connecting Newton’s rich genius to Science and Math content/ curricula, they are already studied or will be studying. They can even author a page of such connections with the heading: Newton KNEW IT ALL!!

Intermediate students can design web pages that focus on current issues or stories in science and /or mathematics which resonate with Newton’s understandings.

They can also digitally photograph natural phenomena in daily life that reflect Newton’s understandings and insights.

SCIENCE/MATHEMATICS/LANGUAGE ARTS

Newton’s Inventions page can be the jumping off point for the middle school students’ creating their own inventions inspired by his or exploring current permutations of how his inventions live on in our current time.

They can relate the information on the Pennsylvania Mountains to their Earth Science Curriculum and research other magnetic mountains. They can also develop a list of links for these mountains.

Intermediate Students can do an invention’s need survey, preliminary drawings and a précis detailing the need, science/mathematical design principles behind it, and market design for their inventions. They can be Newton’s 21st Century apprentices in invention.

HIGH SCHOOL

The site was developed for, by and with high school students from John F. Kennedy High School.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS/TEST SOPHISTICATION/ REGENTS/SAT ESSAY WRITING/ DEBATING/ STUDIES/

Of course, for this grade level the power point can be the power catalyst for revisitings of Newton’s achievements and aligning Newton to contemporary issues of intellectual freedom.

High school students can partake of his castle of critical thinking , investigative and hypothesis formation as they react to the same issues of censorship and intellectual freedom for publication that charged his life.

They can develop their own pro and con persuasive essay takes on some of the issues and themes he advocated.

Of course they can also research how these issues have changed and the extent to which they figure in today’s news.

They can develop designs for their own pages to amplify these issues.

They can also develop model English Regents test sophistication questions in multiple

choice, DBQ and essay format for the exam and of course provide the answers as well.

MATHEMATICS:

They can explore the extent to which Newton’s mathematical insights are part of their current curricula or have fun by having him comment on their current mathematics textbooks!!

They can research to identify other mathematicians who were investigating at the same time as Newton and compare their results with his.

SCIENCE:

They can develop sample pages from Newton’s ongoing data keeping in which they hypothesize, using his writings and ideas, how he would have written or filled in a current lab observation journal or lab procedure format.

WORLD HISTORY:

Students can design a timeline focusing on other giant multidisciplinary science, mathematics, and political thinkers such as Da Vinci and Einstein and relate Newton’s achievements to theirs using graphic organizers in a power point.

A scientist and writer for all centuries, on cyberspace for all to visit and to revision!!

Newton’s Castle is open for exploration and for “apple” ications 2-12! http://www.tqnyc.org/NYC051308/index.htm

Chemistry Becomes Easy Learning Through Suitable Help

Learning Chemistry helps one understand the world better. Through his knowledge of basic Chemistry, one can understands common chemical reactions like detergent working better in hot water or salt dissolving in water or ice melting in the heat. Thus, a person can be more conscious of every day products he uses when he knows the fundamental aspects of Chemistry.

Chemistry is used in many fields like Biology, Physics and Engineering. Its usage is found in fireworks, truck driving, plumbing, hair dressing and cooking. Chemists work in labs, research centers and teaching profession. One has the vast career opportunities if he chooses Chemistry.

Students find Chemistry interesting or a bore as per their attitudes towards the subject. Their earlier exposure to the subject plays a pivotal role in their positive or negative attitude towards Chemistry. In this context, introduction of elementary school Chemistry in a lively and practicable manner becomes mandatory for making Chemistry an interesting learning.

As students get ahead in their Grades, learning Chemistry becomes complex and intricate. Atoms, molecules and periodic table of elements prove difficult and beyond reach in the course of time. Chemical reactions and solutions are also out of reach for many. Further, students need to concentrate on chemical bonding and balancing equations as they enter advanced Grades.

Early lapses in learning Chemistry pay heavily and students need lots of remedial material to compensate what they have missed in their previous classes. Getting into track in the present Grade would become a headache if they miss the links between the topics learned in the previous years. Gaining some support for their Chemistry reviews are important for them to go ahead in Chemistry lessons with confidence.

Online tutoring has been the buzz word in the private tutoring world and online tutors in Chemistry would be of great advantage to students who struggle in their Chemistry topics without knowing a way out. The tutors interact with students and learn their learning difficulties. They suggest methods and tips which make Chemistry learning easy for students.

Formulas in Chemistry are heading breaking and the same is found with symbols and problems. Online Chemistry tutors teach students to learn formulas in a systematic manner and get them through the formulas without confusion. Same way, they provide flash cards for symbols and teach mnemonics to remember them.

The practice tests, worksheets and other learning aids provided by tutors in Chemistry help students gain confidence in areas of problem solving and equations and face their tests with confidence. With the use of inbuilt calculators of white board, the tutors unwind the mysteries of Chemistry problems and explain them step by step to students.

In a technology enhanced ambience of education, learning through online tutoring methods makes Chemistry hassle free for students. They are able to grasp the fundamentals of Chemistry via the help of subject experts and get homework help for even the toughest topics. Lab work also becomes an easy matter for them with the help of tutoring experts in the field.

Thus, Chemistry learning becomes simple when a student approaches online tutoring centers and gets suitable help.