Blockchain Technology for E-Commerce

Blockchain is a decentralised digital public ledger for tracking economic transactions. It’s designed to record not only financial transactions but everything that goes in it. The best feature of a Blockchain is that it allows to view user’s holdings and the transactions that they have carried out over the system publicly.

Moreover, it also conceals the identity of a user via powerful cryptography. The decryption of the cryptographic code needs a long and challenging calculation, thereby, making it the safest way to transact money.

Challenges in the e-commerce Sector

Blockchain technology is transforming the ecommerce industry by decentralizing the control and cutting the existence of middleman from the landscape. But, before exploring the potential of Blockchain technology for e-commerce industry, let’s dig into the current challenges that the e-commerce industry is facing.

  • High Costs- One of the major pain point of a seller in the traditional ecommerce business model is the involvement of a middleman, who takes away a good share of money on every purchase. The seller has to pay the transaction processing fee for completion of each transaction.
  • Uncertain Security- Protection of buyers’ data is another key concern for these kind of businesses. The system needs to gain the trust of their customers and have to assure them that their personal and financial data is safe. The current state of the ecommerce industry fails to provide foolproof security to the users.
  • Time consuming- E-commerce model include an array of operations like supply chain, logistics, payment gateways etc. To manage all these operations e-commerce industry has to deal with this intermediates everyday. This consumes a lot of time to complete the whole process.

How Blockchain will Drive the e-commerce Industry in Future

Blockchain technology for e-commerce is a boom for not only the sellers but also for the buyers. Few of the challenges which can be addresses by introducing Blockchain in e-commerce industry are as follows:

  • Cost Reduction- With Blockchain, e-commerce industry can rely on the Blockchain technology for managing inventory, payment processing, product database and other business activities. This results in spending less on maintaining systems or hiring IT support teams to maintain them. Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Ripple etc. will cut-down the fees that third party institutions like banks charge during transactions.
  • Cyber Threats- Despite of using a secure transaction network, the e-commerce industry is always at a risk of losing their customers data and money due to unwanted cyber attacks. Blockchain technology is a perfect solution for resolving these challenges. It provides highest level of security by using distributed ledgers for managing the e-commerce database management systems.
  • Fast processing- Blockchain technology for e-commerce is removing the dependency of middleman, manpower and third party organizations from the e-commerce model. It saves a lot of time consumed in the overall process ranging from inventory managing, to order placing to delivering at users door step.

Cryptocurrency Works

Cryptography has a history dating back to the World War II, when there was a need to communicate in the most secure manner. Since that time, an evolution of the same has occurred and it has become digitalized today where different elements of computer science and mathematical theory are being utilized for purposes of securing communications, money and information online.

The first cryptocurrency – The very first cryptocurrency was introduced in the year 2009 and is still well known all over the world. Many more cryptocurrencies have since been introduced over the past few years and today you can find so many available over the internet.

How they work – This kind of digital currency makes use of technology that is decentralized so as to allow the different users to make payments that are secure and also, to store money without necessarily using a name or even going through a financial institution. They are mainly run on a blockchain. A blockchain is a public ledger that is distributed publicly.

The cryptocurrency units are usually created using a process that is referred to as mining. This usually involves the use of a computer power. Doing it this way solves the math problems that can be very complicated in the generation of coins. Users are only allowed to purchase the currencies from the brokers and then store them in cryptographic wallets where they can spend them with great ease.

Cryptocurrencies and the application of blockchain technology are still in the infant stages when thought of in financial terms. More uses may emerge in the future as there is no telling what else will be invented. The future of transacting on stocks, bonds and other types of financial assets could very well be traded using the cryptocurrency and blockchain technology in the future.

Why use cryptocurrency? – One of the main traits of these currencies is the fact that they are secure and that they offer an anonymity level that you may not get anywhere else. There is no way in which a transaction can be reversed or faked. This is by far the greatest reason why you should consider using them.

The fees charged on this kind of currency are also quite low and this makes it a very reliable option when compared to the conventional currency. Since they are decentralized in nature, they can be accessed by anyone unlike banks where accounts are opened only by authorization.

Cryptocurrency markets are offering a brand new cash form and sometimes the rewards can be great. You may make a very small investment only to find that it has mushroomed into something great in a very short period of time. However, it is still important to note that the market can be volatile too, and there are risks that are associated with buying.

Grade 6 Science Fair Project – "Road Salt – Is it the Fastest Way to Melt Icy Roads?"

The purpose of this science fair project is to explore the effect of road salt placed on snowy and icy roads. The freezing point for water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature water freezes into ice. Road salt is placed on snowy and icy roads because the salt causes the ice and snow to melt. The chemistry behind this reaction is that salt lowers the melting point or freezing point of water. The salt acts as foreign particles in the water to help the melting process.

In this science fair project you will simulate sidewalks and roads in icy conditions. You will fill dishes with ice to represent the sidewalks and roads. You will place various materials across the ice cubes to see if and how the ice cubes melt. The various materials include: road salt, fertilizer, calcium chloride, cat litter, and sand.


Road salt and the various other materials will cause the ice to melt

faster than using nothing at all.


Type of material spread on ice

Materials Needed:

  • Six dishes that have dimensions of 9 x 13 inches
  • Freezer available to use during the science fair project
  • Stopwatch
  • Water
  • 12 ounces of road salt
  • 12 ounces of fertilizer
  • 12 ounces of calcium chloride
  • 12 ounces of cat litter
  • 12 ounces of sand
  • Paper
  • Pencil
  • Camera


Complete the following steps for this science fair project:

Setup Step #1:

Pour water into each of the six dishes. Make sure that the water level in each dish is 1 inch.

Setup Step #2:

Place the six dishes in the freezer. Leave the dishes in the freezer until the water has frozen to ice. You may have to leave the dishes in the freezer overnight.

Setup Step #3:

Place each of the six dishes on the floor of your kitchen.

You are now ready to begin the science experiment.


Step #1:

You are going to spread material onto each dish in the following


Dish #1: Do not spread any material across this dish. Leave this

dish as plain ice only.

Dish #2: Spread the 12 ounces of road salt evenly across this dish.

Dish #3: Spread the 12 ounces of fertilizer evenly across this dish.

Dish #4: Spread the 12 ounces of calcium chloride evenly across

this dish.

Dish #5: Spread the 12 ounces of cat litter evenly across this dish.

Dish #6: Spread the 12 ounces of sand evenly across this dish.

Step #2:

Use your stopwatch to determine how long it takes for each

material to melt the ice. Record your observations. Did the road salt melt the ice the quickest? Rank the materials in order from the dish that melted the fastest to the slowest. Do you think that road salt is most effective material to use on icy roads? Why or why not?

Step #3:

You may want to take pictures during the melting process.

Pictures will help you document your observations as well as validate your results and conclusions.

Summary of Results:

The materials that were spread across each dish cause the freezing point to lower. This in effect caused the ice to melt. Road salt is

used on icy roads because it is the most effective and also the safest for the environment.

What Should Be on the Tombstone of Gifted Education? Part 5: Writing the Tombstone

In Part 4, the focus was on extracurricular activities and their lack of use in gifted education today. While all students would benefit from the extension of knowledge into social issues, gifted students are those that are most likely to attain positions of influence and their ability to solve social issues should be at the heart of their educational plans. These experiences could take several forms from shadowing doctors or engineers, conducting research in any number of areas, reporting that research to the professional community, or aiding in the design of urban planning or alternative methods of planning. Any experience that forces gifted children to incorporate learned knowledge and integrate this knowledge into their moral structure solves the issue of whether or not the knowledge learned is truly understood and can be utilized effectively.

As the facts in Part’s 1-4 are examined, it is not hard to figure out why gifted education programs are not being funded or being closed completely. The education of gifted students actually requires more time and resources than the traditional student. If those resources and money were spent on the traditional school, many more students could have their test scores raised and their political clout (test scores) would remain intact. Not only are resources an issue in teaching the gifted, the administrator’s attitudes toward them also is changed by these very same test scores. It is assumed that the gifted will do well on their own so they are left to their own devices to prepare for state tests.

Identification of the gifted student also raises issues in housing these students, how districts will pay for their education, and what types of special curriculum will be used to train these students. Since most districts house gifted students in a single facility rather than providing each school an individual program, many students go unidentified as gifted. This limits the resources that are spent trying to educate these students. Identification of the gifted also raises issues involving just how far a district curriculum or teaching resources will go to be sure the student is educated. Extended experiences are required to be sure that knowledge is processed and incorporated into the student’s foundation of understanding.

So, what should go on the tombstone of gifted education? Gifted education is not dead yet but with the overreliance on state testing the allocation of resources into its preparation, gifted education has one foot in the grave and a headstone should be carved in anticipation of the end. In preparation, I suggest the headstone read as such:

Here Lies Gifted Education

Shot in the Back by State Testing

Mourned by Everyone, Missed by None

A New Definition of Science – The Textual Foundation That Represents the Real World

The Wikipedia defines science as follows. Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Definitions from various sources has to do with knowledge, investigation, study, observation, experimentation, laws, structure, behavior, explanation and systematicity.

They describe science and scientific activities, instead of pointing out what the enterprise is. What science looks like? They also don’t point out what enables science, why and how humans obtain the capability to advance in science. They describe the appearances and many facets of science but don’t make known the nature of science. We are going to find out.

After writing some articles on relations between written language and science, it is time for us to provide a new, text-based definition of science, which is important as a basis for carrying out future discussions of related issues. We have already proposed in previous papers that written language is the foundation of science.

The idea to exclude non-texts

We consider written language as the core of science, while non-texts are the goals, materials and occurrences.

Certainly, scientific activities include both texts and non-texts. Both are indispensable, with non-texts seem to be the real things. Without non-texts, the world wouldn’t exist, not to mention science. However, judging by the properties, we now decided to exclude non-texts from science. Otherwise, science would include virtually all information we can experience. That might lead to uncertainty, vagueness, misunderstanding, chaos and confusion.

Furthermore, we learn science mainly from books and papers. The achievement of scientists is judged by their publications. Some great discoveries are incidental. But they must be fitted into the existing textual framework to become part of the science.

When science is defined based on texts, its nature and properties will be well presented. Science-related investigations will be provided a clear basis. In fact, this definition doesn’t contradict with the common definitions, since texts constitute the systematic enterprise which supports the functions science fulfills.

The non-scientific texts

Texts are omnipresent in our lives, recording everything. But only a portion of them is considered scientific texts. The scientific or non-scientific texts are not different in that they are symbolic and sequential. Although they possess the capability of being science, they do not necessarily fulfil the function.

Descriptive texts

Texts of literature, narrative, fictions, art, instruction, music, advertisement, daily conversation, chatting message, etc. are descriptive and conveying. The sake of them is to describe the non-textual reality, which are the goal, in the center and being emphasized. This kind of texts are important in documenting, communicating the events, understanding of which are not reliant on the texts. The texts are peripheral to the non-texts and not attempting to build their own foundation. On the contrary, scientific texts are needed to understand the phenomena because of the properties of texts and the difficulties in observing the phenomena.

Mentalistic texts

This kind of texts are foundational but don’t represent facts. Collectively, we call them mentalistic texts. They include texts of religion, ethical belief, moral concept, philosophy, and pseudoscience. They tend to center on texts, but are not based on facts, based on vague facts or only reflect biased facts. Representing reality is not their goal. Nor are they intended to be verified. Subjectivity is an element common to this kind of texts. It is some kind of description or insistence on one’s own thought, opinion and argument, refraining from changes, rejecting challenges or denying their failure to account for the facts.

Although these texts don’t aim to represent reality, most of them are derived from facts or imaginations. They serve as an emotional need, spontaneous mental behavior and alternatives to science in some cases. Although not being scientific, they are still able to establish.


There is no absolute distinction between descriptive, mentalistic and scientific texts. Some portions in descriptive texts or mentalistic texts might be scientific. The same facts could be studied in different kind of texts. For example, texts about history could be descriptive if they focus on the events; or scientific if they derive some regular patterns; or mentalistic if they adhere to creationism.

Indeed, scientific texts might have evolved from descriptive texts and mentalistic texts. That is why modern science was formerly called “natural philosophy”, which emerged from the integration of description of nature and the representational aspect of philosophy.

The text-based definition of science

Then comes the third kind of texts – science, defined as:

Science is the textual foundation that represents the real world.

Criteria of this definition

For the key properties of written language and science, refer to the paper “Language – The Core of Science”[1]. The basic ones are sequentiality and clarity. Now we added a third property – representation of reality. Being representational implies being processed, foundational, established and centered on.

The three properties are used for judgment on whether a text is scientific or how scientific it is. In the paper “Scientific Strength of Writing Systems – The Aspects”, we had explained the sequentility and clarity aspects. The “representation of reality” aspect is discussed in the following subsection.

Establishment of the representation of reality by means of visual processing

The key difference between representation and description is the center is texts for the former, while non-texts being the center of the latter. The accumulation of science is based on existing representational texts, while descriptive texts conform to the facts as they are. Since non-texts are centered on, the properties of texts given in The Paper are not fully exploited in descriptive texts, although which might choose proper or beautiful language in their composition.

The visual characteristic of texts makes it suitable for visual processing, which is needed to build a representation of reality. Through mental processing of the representational texts, we are able to extract consistency, commonalities and regularity, to clarify, refine and simplify information, to find contradictions, to discover new theory by reasoning, to approve or disapprove a new theory, to incorporate new theories into existing knowledge, to establish relations between existing knowledge, to organize and categorize knowledge as it expands. All these are achieved by intensive textual thinking.

The sequential growth of symbolic representation is constantly checked with facts, observations and experiments for validation. The explanation of the facts in textual means is accurate and deterministic, unlikely to change and are relied upon, while the represented non-texts are themselves not sequentially related, not clearly observed or even invisible. Due to the infinite expansion of observations and experiments, the textual representations also expand accordingly in an orderly manner.


Given the new definition of science, our discussions of science-related matters will be on a clear, focused and targeted course. It becomes clear that the science-centered world is in essence founded on scientific texts and the textual mind. Technology, engineering and many life-changing practices are integrated with and reliant on the textual representations.

In the science-text unity, we had put more emphasis on the written language. Now, as we are shifting towards science, there is a new horizon ahead.



[1] Referred to as “The Paper” hereafter.